GET ACQUAINTED - Ask half the group to relate the story of their conversion or tell about their family/church background.

What insights did you bring to share?

Ps.118:19-24 "This is the day that the Lord has made [specify, Christ's death and resurrection]; let us rejoice and be glad in it."

Ps.118 is a call to give thanks to the Lord for deliverance and victory.  V.1 & 29 bracket the Psalm.  Jesus quotes v.22-23 as referring to Himself (Mt.21:42).  The crowd shouts "Hosanna" (v.25-26) as Jesus enters Jerusalem on the donkey (Mt.21:9).

1. Types, representations, images, shadows, forshadowings, parallels, patterns, figures, signs, and symbols depict, picture, outline, prefigure, point to, or render some semblance or clue to the reality (ie., antitype, Beg. at Mos. p.244-245).  They are not themselves the reality and there are more representations than those specifically identified as such in the N.T.  They serve to condition our thinking and instill certain concepts so we will recognize the truth when it is revealed.  [see apdx.B]  Thus the Old Testament is the historical foreshadowing of the future reality.  It builds a conceptual framework that provides the categories for comprehending the ways of God and the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

For examples of the New Testament (Gospel) interpretation of the Old Testament, look at the following passages and list the promises given to Abram.
Gen.12:2-3, 7-8; 17:4-8
     12:7, "I will give this land to your descendant"

17:8, "I will give the whole land of Canaan to you and your descendants after you as an everlasting possession"

How are the promises expanded or clarified in the N.T.?    Rom.4:13 "the promise to Abraham and his offspring, that he would be the heir of the world"

Gal.3:16 "the promises were made to Abraham and his seed (Christ)…"

The promises as they applied to Israel were only a shadow of their full realization.  Christ is the descendant in whom the promises are completed.

Gal.3:29 "If you are Christ's' then you are Abraham's seed, heirs according to promise."  The NT discusses these promises in the context of justification by faith where Abraham is a prototype [original model, example of its kind] for all believers who will inherit the world, not merely the land of Canaan.

The historical narrative of the Bible is not merely a succession of events from which we draw moral lessons or a convenient cache out of which we extract principles or illustrations of the Christian life.  Biblical history gives us a frame of reference to understand God’s purposes and spiritual nature of reality.  The whole Bible presents itself as the unfolding process of God's dealings with man and of His self-disclosure to man.  Revelation is progressive.  The history of redemption is incomplete without the New Testament, because the New Testament clarifies the typology and transforms the Old Testament imagery by the Gospel.  For example, deliverance effected by a judge, king, or other means is a redemptive event (prefigures redemption).  The Old Testament progression of revelation toward fulfillment in the New means that the whole Bible is properly understood only in light of the Christ of the Gospel.

Example of Typology of a Redemptive Event
in Contrast to Subjective (Allegorical) Interpretation:

Read Joshua 2:1-21; 6:22-25 and consider the following:

One line of interpretation focuses on the redness of Rahab's cord (2:18) as a type of the blood of Christ.  The focus and only connection are merely the redness of each [false association].  But the conquest of Jericho is part of the saving acts of God for Israel, and of his judgment on the godless Canaanites.  That Rahab found safety from this judgment and was saved through hiding the spies (by faith, Heb.11:31) and obeying the instruction to display a sign of identification, has many real parallels to the Passover in Egypt.  In that sense the tying of an easily-seen colored cord to the window had saving significance for Rahab, and the fact that she became incorporated in the people of God (Josh.6:25) means her story depicts salvation.  So it is not the redness which establishes the connection, but the redemptive significance of the event.  This passage, along with other passages, also demonstrates the purpose of God for the gentiles as promised to Abraham in Gen.12:3.  Jethro of Midian and his daughter whom Moses married, Rahab the Canaanite, and Ruth the Moabitess are examples of gentile converts.

Identify 2 redemptive events from the Old Testament other than those mentioned above.  Notice that each is accompanied by judgment.    the ark and flood
the zeal of Phinehas for the Lord's honor [in slaying an Israelite openly cavorting with a Midianite] as Moab tries to seduce Israel, "Phinehas son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, has turned My anger away from the Israelites; for he was as zealous as I am for My honor among them, so that in My zeal I did not put an end to them." (Num.25:10)


·                    A Theophany is the manifestation of God to people in some visible form such as a pillar of fire or cloud (Ex.13).  A Christophany is a pre-incarnate appearance of Christ in a human form.  Christophanies reveal significant truths about God and his purpose for his people.  The most common appearances are identified as "the Angel of the Lord."  The word translated "angel" literally means "messenger".  This angel possesses divine attributes, performs divine works, and is even referred to as "God," while at the same time is distinct from God.  Christophanies helped prepare the way for the incarnation by creating a mindset that anticipated the visible manifestation of God in the messianic work of prophet, priest and king.

·                    Read Gen.16:7-13; Gen.18; Gen.21:14-20.    What things do you see that only God can be and do (characterize divine perfections and works)?

Multiply Hagar's descendents; called Him God, LORD; heard Sarah's thoughts; Abraham appeals to His righteousness; called from heaven; used the 1st person

·                    List some other designations or titles of Christ in the O.T.
Zech.3:8-10  My servant the branch; Ps.2:6-7  My son, king; Isa.52:13-15  My servant; Isa.53:11  the righteous one, My servant; Ezek.34:23-24  David

·                    List some of the N.T. designations of Christ pointing back to the O.T.
Rev.22:16  “I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star”


Since the fall of Man and his consequent separation from God, mankind has needed a mediator between himself and God.  A mediator stands between 2 parties who are at odds as an intermediary to resolve the conflict, bring reconciliation, and peace.  In Old Testament times there were three classes of public service that filled this need - prophets, priests, and kings.  They were consecrated [definition?  set apart to serve God] to their offices by an anointing with oil (1Ki.19:16b; Ex.28:41; 1 Ki.1:34).  Since all human instruments come short and fail, God planned from the beginning to provide the perfect Prophet, Priest, and King.  This expectation among the Jews was the basis for the idea of a coming Messiah.  The words "Messiah" (Hebrew) and "Christ" (Greek) mean anointed one.

Look up the following verses and write your observations.

A.   Prophet - The Old Testament prophets were called to be channels of revelation.  They spoke to men in behalf of God.  The preeminent prophet was Moses, who mediated the covenant between God and His people, the Israelites.

Dt.18:15-19 "the Lord your God will raise up a prophet like me [Moses] from your midst and brethren, and you shall hear Him.  "I will put My words in his mouth, he shall speak all I command"  {Acts 3:22-23 “…You shall listen to Him in whatever He tells you.  And it shall be that every soul who does not listen shall be destroyed…”}[God says to hear His beloved Son, Jesus, at His baptism and transfiguration]      Jn.8:28 "I speak just as the Father taught me,"
Jn.17:8 "I have given them [people the Father gave Jesus] the words You gave me."

Heb.1:1-2 "at various times and in different ways, God spoke to the fathers through the prophets.  In these last days He has spoken to us by His Son."

B.   Priest - Priests were the mediators between God and men.  After the construction of the tabernacle they spoke to God on behalf of men through sacrifices, offerings, and intercessory prayer.

1 Tim.2:4-5, God our savior desires all people to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth.  "For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus"

Heb.4:14-16 "Jesus is our great high priest"

Heb.6:20-7:3 "[Jesus] has become a high priest forever"

Heb.7:24-25 "He is able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them."

Heb.8:6 "[Christ] is mediator of a better covenant,"   (9:15) "a new covenant so that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance [6:17, "inherit the promises"], since a death has occurred that redeems them from the transgressions committed under the first covenant."

A.   King - The role of the king was to act in the name of God, ruling righteously for the welfare of the people.  He was both protector and judge.  In many ways King David's life typified that of his greater Son, Jesus Christ.  [see Chap.6 RPCD]

Lk.1:32-33 "He [Jesus] will be great and will be called the son of the highest, and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David, and He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom shall not end."  {see "David" in Jer.30:9 & Hos.3:5}  Eph.1:20-22 "He [the Father] put all things under His [Christ's] feet and gave Him as head over all things to the church"

{Rev.19:16 "King of kings and Lord of lords"}

What captured your attention in this lesson?

FURTHER STUDY - According to Plan by Graeme Goldsworthy

APDX B, Chap.2 of RPCD


God has spoken and dealt with mankind in such a way as to both hide and reveal unseen realities.